Kamis, 27 Agustus 2009

Penataran Temple


Based on ‘Prasasti Kinewu’ (Kinewu Inscription), it had proved that Blitar area is an area that had governed by King Watukuro Dya Balitung who governed in about 897-910 Mash. Equally, Blitar area becomes the Eastside of the Empire that had focused in Central Java. In this Blitar area is placed an officer representing the king. In publics that had non-money system of economy, the king cannot give salary to his officers except land area. The ancient Java Law load a rule that the king often gave a piece of land to the meritorious officer. The rule must been confirmed with a stipulating of charter or inscription. Land area is the property of king, which can be gave to his subordinate. According to law book titled Kutarananawa section 93 had mentioned ‘Sang Ratu Wiwesa Mawa Bumi Desa’, then in section 100 it is determined that: ‘Apan drwe sang prabhu lemah ika’. Explain that the important property of the King is land area. Then we can see the existence of bent area institutes, lungguh, gaduan, tanah gumantung, tanah patuh, etc. Majapahit as the new state had centered near to Majakerta. In King Wijaya led below, as the first King, Majapahit kingdom grew greatly. Piquancy in the history relation of Blitar area from that period is the existence of omission of holy building, which located in Kotes village Gandusari district. There is number 1222 Saka and 1223 Saka in that building.

Thereby the building comes from 1300 and 1301 Mash (Knebel, 1908: thing. 355). The building is contemporary with the government of first Majapahit King. It proved that Blitar area in the early of XIV century still showing the important region. What is the relation of establishment of holy building with the history of this area? A guide that can give the description concerning that history, there is some inscription from XII century Mash in area along the length of hillside dale Kawi in Westside. This indicates that this area admit to proved until now with the existence of some plantations. This profiting natural factor influenced the existence of prosperous public life. That prosperity pushed the growth of big resident in a short time. Although there are no notes about resident amounts in Blitar area in this East side, but it estimated that with the existence of men-power, hence this area becomes an important one. The available of big labor is one of conscription guarantee of soldier to a purpose of defense and attack. As Tuhanyaru inscription that mention the existence of land award to a number of functionaries kingdom because they had deserved well to King, hence inscription Blitar also load similar statement.

It knowable that the relation of King Jayanegara and Blitar area was had a special character. That special relationship that showed at stipulating a number of ha that given to the functionaries, in respect to the faithfulness of Blitar village to the King. In this relationship event of what happened so that the King had the pleasure to give an award to Blitar village resident.

King Jayanegara is the second Majapahit King; replace his father, Kerjarajasa Jayawardhana who had died in 1309 M. In his government, there are two sources that giving different description. Both the sources are Negarakertagama that written by Prapanca and Pararaton, which are not mentioned the written name. Negarakertagama tell about a period of the government in 1309-1328 Mash. It is in ‘Pupuh’ XLVII Prapanca had described, which translation in Indonesian is: He left Jayanegara as King Wilwatikta and his sister Rajapadhi Utama. The two very beautiful females, as twin Ratih give in the eldest angel Rani in Jiwana, while the youngest Jadirani in Daha. In Saka year: To force honeymoon aspect, Lord Jayanegara leave to avoid the enemy to Lumajang. He said that Pajarakan destroyed, Nambi and the family destroyed, and the whole of public felt scare to saw His Majesty officer ship. Year Saka: circle bow the sun, he return, soon buried in gate, having symbol Wisnuparama statue. In Between Check and located Bubat is area Wisnuparama. Between Check and ‘Bubat’ straightened Wisnu area symbolize ‘Tara Inda’. In Sukalila picturesque of Buda as Amoga sidi transform.

From ‘Pupuh’ above, hence knowable that during the Jayanegara government, he could broke the rebellion of Nambi in 1361M. Further, Pararaton reported the rebellion that led by Ranggalawe, Sora and Nambi. All the rebellions earn in extinguished by the Lord. There was again a rebellion in 1316 and 1317 under Kuti and Seni leader. The rebellion made King Jayanegara run to Bedander village accompanied by Bhayangkara team under Gajah Mada led. Because the Gajah Mada tactics, Jayanegara had successfully return to the coronation. Kuti and Seni had successfully destroyed (Pararaton: 80-83). That news gave us a guide that during the Jayanegara government, there was a rebellion, but it successfully extinguished. That reality, gives a proven that Jayanegara avoid a difficult condition in his first led. This reality can give a reason, of Jayanagara was release his inscription. It cannot be questionable again; that the stipulating of this inscription in Blitar is the important event of Jayanegara wrote that inscription. It also was an important point of the declared of Blitar in Majapahit government. Moreover, that important event, based on the element of calendar in the inscription, had happened at Sunday ‘Pahing’ month of Srawana 1246 Saka, on 5 Augusts 1324M. For next period, Blitar mentioned in Negarakertagama book its relationship with the King Hayam Wuruk touring to East Java areas. Some years that was making the matter of news along the length of concerning Blitar and other places in vicinity area written in ‘Pupuh-pupuh’.

Tautan : http://eastjava.com/tourism/blitar/penataran/english/about.html

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